Albugo candida (Persoon) Roussel, 1806

Chromista, Oomycota, Oomycetes, Albuginaceae

op Brassicaceae, Resedaceae

on Brassicaceae, Resedaceae

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt

Albugo candida gall

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt

Diplotaxis tenuifolia, België, Luik © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Albugo candida: galls on Diplotaxis tenuifolia

Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Belgium, Liège © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Lunaria annua, Dronten: bovenzijde van het blad; det. Huub van der Aa, © Arnold Grosscurt

Albugo candida gall

Lunaria annua, Dronten: upperside of the leaf; det. Huub van der Aa, © Arnold Grosscurt

onderzijde

Albugo candida gall

underside

Brassica napus, Amsterdam, Diemerpark: bult op de as van de bloeiwijze

Albugo candida on Brassica napus

Brassica napus, Amsterdam, Diemerpark: blister on the axis of the inflorescence

de oudere breken open

Albugo candida on Brassica napus

older ones burst open

delen van de bloeiwijze krijgen ernstige groeistoringen

Albugo candida in inflorescence of Brassica napus

the growth of parts of the infloresccence is severely disturbed

Sisymbrium officinale, Nieuwendam

Albugo candida on Sisymbrium officinale

Sisymbrium officinale, Nieuwendam

intense roodverkleuring aan de bovenzijde

Albugo candida on Sisymbrium officinale

intense red-colouration at the upperside

sporenvorming

Albugo candida: conidia formation

spore formation

waardplanten: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Resedaceae, nauw polyfaag

hostplants: Brassicceae, Capparaceae, Resedaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Alliaria petiolata; Alyssoides utriculata; Alyssum alyssoides, desertorum, montanum, repens, tortuosum subsp. caliacrae; Arabidopsis ? arenosa, halleri, petraea, suecica, thaliana; Arabis alpina & subsp. caucasica, auriculata, caerulea, ciliata, collina, crispata, glabra, hirsuta, planisiliqua subsp. nemorensis, pumila, soyeri subsp. subcoriacea, stellulata, turrita; Armoracia rusticana; Aubrieta columnae, deltoidea, intermedia; Aurinia saxatilis; Barbarea intermedia, stricta, verna, vulgaris; Berteroa incana; Biscutella auriculata, intermedia, laevigata, valentina subsp. pyrenaica; Boechera holboellii; Brassica juncea, napus, nigra, oleracea, rapa; Braya alpina; Bunias ? erucago, orientalis; Cakile maritima; Calepina irregularis; Camelina microcarpa, sativa; Capsella bursa-pastoris, grandiflora, orientalis, rubella; Cardamine enneaphyllos, flexuosa, hirsuta, impatiens, trifolia, waldsteinii; Chorispora tenella; Cleome hassleriana, viscosa; Cleoserrata speciosa; Clypeola jonthlaspi; Cochlearia anglica, danica, officinalis; Coincya longirostra, monensis subsp. cheiranthos; Conringia orientalis; Crambe maritima, tatarixa; Descurainia sophia; Diplotaxis erucoides, muralis, tenuifolia, virgata; Diptychocarpus strictus; Draba aizoides, cuspidata, hispanica, incana, sauteri; Erophila verna; Eruca vesicaria; Erucastrum gallicum, nasturtiifolium; Erysimum aureum, bicolor, cheiri, cheiranthoides, crepidifolium, cuspidatum, diffusum, gorbeanum, hieraciifolium, humile, marschallianum, odoratum, repandum, rhaeticum, scoparium, wittmannii; Euclidium syriacum; Glastaria glastifolia; Heliophila amplexicaulis, crithmifolia, integrifolia; Hesperis matronalis; Hirschfeldia incana; Hornungia alpina, petraea; Hugueninia tanacetifolia; Hymenolobus procumbens; Iberis amara, pruittii, umbellata; Isatis djurjudae, praecox; Kernera saxatilis; Lobularia maritima; Lunaria annua, rediviva; Malcomia africana, littorea, maritima, orsiniana subsp. angulifolia; Matthiola fruticulosa, incana; Murbeckiella pinnatifida; Myagrum perfoliatum; Nasturtium officinale; Neslia paniculata; Petrocallis pyrenaica; Polenisia dodecandra; Pritzelago alpina & subp. auerswaldii; Raphanus raphanistrum, sativus & subsp. niger; Rapistrum perenne, rugosum; Schivereckia podolica; Schizopetalon walkeri; Sinapis alba, arvensis & subsp. allionii; Sisymbrium altissimum, austriacum, crassifolium, irio, loeselii, luteum, officinale, orientale, strictissimum, volgense; Syrenia cana; Teesdalia nudicaulis; Teesdaliopsis conferta; Thlaspi arvense.

synoniemen: Cystopus candidus (Persoon) Léveillé, 1848.

synonyms: Cystopus candidus (Persoon) Léveillé, 1848.

opmerkingen: A. candida wordt vaak aangetroffen samen met valse meeldauwen, zoals Hyalopenorospora parasitica (Buhr, Redfern & Shirley), brassicae of H. lunariae. Bains & Jhooty schrijven dat inderdaad Albugo de waardplant ontvankelijk maakt voor de meeldauw.

Gericht onderzoek heft aangetoond dat A. candida bij veel planten binnen de Brasicaceae leeft als endophyt, zonder dat de plant uitwendige symptomen vertoont; omdat ook de vruchten geïnfecteerd zijn wordt de schimmel van de ene generatie op de ander overgebracht (Ploch & Thines).

DNA-onderzoek heeft een grote mate van variatie binnen deze soort aan het licht gebracht. Op grond daarvan zijn de albugo's van Cardamine amara en pratensis, en die van C. hirsuta onderscheiden als aparte soorten, resp. A. leimonia en A. hohenheimia (Ploch ea, 210a).

notes: A. candida often is found in association with downy mildews, like Hyalopenorospora parasitica (Buhr, Redfern & Shirley), brassicae, or H. lunariae. As a matter of fact, Bains & Jhooty write that Albugo predisposes the plant for the mildew.

It has been shown that A. candida lives as an endophyte in many plants within the Brassicaceae, that are completely asymptomatic. Because also the fruits are infected, the fungus is transmitted from one generation to the other (Ploch & Thines).

DNA analysis has demonstrated a high degree of variation within this species. Two albugo's therefore have been set apart as independent species, viz. the parasites of Cardamine amara and pratensis, and the one of C. hirsuta, as A. leimonia and A. hohenheimia, repectively (Ploch ea, 210a).

literatuur

references

Bains & Jhooty (2008a), Bellmann (2012a), Blumer (1946a), Brandenburger (1972a), Buhr (1964a, 1965a), Chinery (2011a), Choi, Shin, Hon & Thines (2007a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Doppelbaur & Doppelbaur (1973a), García-Blázquez, Constantinescu, Tellería & Martín (2007a), Gjaerum (1976a, 1980a), Haq, Shahzad & Qamarunnisa (2015a), Jacobson, LeFebvre, Ojerio, Berwald & Heikkinen (1998a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Jage, Scholler & Klenke (2010a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Koops (2013a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a), Kruse (2014a), Kruse & Jage (2014a), Losa España (1942a), Ludwig (1974a), Mayor (1967a, 1970a, 1971a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez, Jordá Gutiérrez ao (2010a), Müller (2015a), Mułenko, Kozłowska, Bacigálová ao (2014a), Negrean (1995a, 1996a), Negrean, Constantinescu & Denchev (2004a), Negrean & Denchev (2000a), Özaslan, Hüseyin & Erdogdu (2014a), Pellicier (2001a), Ploch, Choi, Rost ao (2010a), Ploch & Thines (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Riethmüller, Voglmayr, Göker, Weiß & Oberwinkler (2002a), Roskam (2009a), Ruszkiewicz-Michalska (2006a), Thines & Spring (2005a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Unamuno (1941a, 1942a), Voglmayr & Riethmüller (2006a), Vrandečić, Jurković, Ćosić, Poštić & Bijelić (2011a).

25/05/2017