Cotula, buttonweed, water buttons

fam. Asteraceae

1a puparium in the leaf in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

1b pupation after the the larva has left the mine through a semicircular exit slit => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera

2b larva: rear spiraculum with ca 18 papillae: Phytomyza pullula

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Rhopalomyia syngenesiae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia anthemidis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces macrocarpus

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae; Paraperonospora leptosperma

Phytomyza permutata perhaps lives on C. turbinata; its biology is unknown. Phytomyza scotica has been observed on the Canary Islands on Cotula australis; the mine was not described.