Helianthus, sunflower, jerusalem artichoke

1amine full depth, small, variable in shape; larva a grey caterpillar => 2

1bmine not unusually small, upper- or lower-surface; larva a white maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2alarva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

2bpinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

3ablotch: Calycomyza humeralis

3bgallery => 4

4afrass in discrete grains; pupation in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

4bfrass in strings; prior to pupation the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit => 5

5agallery pinnately branched; main and side branches on top of the midrib and lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

5bmine not associated with the venation of the leaf => 6

6amine starts as a densely wound spiral that quickly turns brown6: Liriomyza eupatorii

6bno initial spiral; mainly in greenhouses: Liriomyza trifolii

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera schachtii

104 – Diptera

104a Agromyzidae: Napomyza lateralis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Trama raram Tama troglodytes

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia helianti

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces ambrosiae, orontii; Leveillula lappae, picridis; Podosphaera xanthii

109b Peronosporaceae: Plasmopara halstedii

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Pustula helanthicola

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium solstitiale

pub 21.ii.2017 ยท mod 11.ix.2017