Bromus, brome

incl. Anisantha, Bromopsis.

1a fleck mine => 2

1b corridor or blotch => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a case resembles a grass spikelet => 3

2b case consists of a number of leaf fragments placed one behind the other, resembling a little saw zak: Coleophora onopordiella

3a case yellowish white, somewhat constricted behind the mouth: Coleophora lixella

3b case brown, not constricted behind the mouth: Coleophora ornatipennella

4a mine full depth; larva with feet and chtinised head; pupation outside the mine (Elachista) => 5

4b mine upper-surface; pupation within or outside the mine => 6

5a of the species mentioned below the mines are insufficiently diagnostic and the larvae of most are not well known. A key cannot be made: Elachista albifrontella, argentella, atricomella, cingillella, elegans, freyerella, lastrella, luticomella, maculicerusella, obliquella, nobilella, sicula, subnigrella

6a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; rear spiraculum drawn into a long point: Hydrellia griseola

6b mandible wth 2 or more teeth; rear spiraculum different => 7

7a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation outside the mine ** => 8

7b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within or outside the mine => 11

8a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae that are elongated and sigmoid: Agromyza intermittens

8b rear spiraculum not specialised in this way => 9

9a larva: behind the mandibles ventrally a field with spinulose warts; mandible with 2-3 teeth => 10

9b behind the mandibles no such field; mandible with 4 teeth (occurrence on this hostplant uncertain): Agromya albipennis

10a larva solitary; rear end of the cut off at right angle: Agromyza rondensis

10b larva communal; rear end cut off obliquely: Agromyza bromi, A. nigrella & A. mobilis

11a puparium within the mine => 12

11b pupation outside the mine => 16

12a puparium: front spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 13

12b puparium not in contact with the outside world => 15

13a puparium orange brown => 14

13b puparium shining black: Cerodontha muscina

14a puparium monochromous; front spiracula somewhat bifid: Chromatomyia nigra

14b puparium with a ventral dark length band; front spiraculum fist-shaped:: Chromatomyia fuscula

15a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a ‘root’: Cerodontha incisa

15b these warts large with a deep ‘root’: Cerodontha pygmaea

16a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae; puparium yellow: Liriomyza flaveola

16b rear spiraculum with 12-18 papillae; puparium brown: Cerodontha flavocingulata

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Subanguina graminophila, radicicola

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera avenae

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria tenuis; Aculodes dubius

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Stenodiplosis bromicola

104b Chloropidae: Oscinella frit, ? trochanterata, vastator

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Diuraphis bromicola

105 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa maculata

108 – smut fungi

108a Georgefischeriace: Jamesdicksonia dactylidis

108b Tilletiaceae: Tilletia bolayi, bromi, controversa

108c Urocystidaceae: Urocystis bromi

108d Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago bromina, bullata, serpens, trebouxii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichloe bromicola

110c Fungi, Phyllachoraceae: Phyllachora graminis

Not included in the key: Coleophra perplexella; Cylindromorphus gallicus angelini; Ochsenheimeria taurella, urella, vaccuella.

** See also the key to the grass-inhabiting Agromyza-larvae.