Phalaris, canary grass

Incl. Phalaroides = Typhoides arundinaceus.

1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow corridor segments the frass in a more or less narrow central line => 2

1b larva a maggot; in narrow segments the frass in two rows => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

3a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; rear spiracula pointed: Hydrellia griseola

3b mandible with 2 or more teeth; rear spiraculum otherwise => 4

4a mine begins with a, usually upper-surface, corridor in the blade, descending into the inside of the leaf sheath; there also the puparium: Cerodontha denticornis

4b mine entirely in the blade => 5

5a puparium within the mine => 6

5b pupation outside the mine => 10

6a puparium ornage brown: Chromatomyia nigra

6b puparium metallic black zwart => 7

7a puparium anchored in the mine with a strand of silk => 8

7b puparium without a thread, glued in the mine with dried frass => 9

8a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a ‘root’: Cerodontha incisa

8b these warts large, with a deep ‘root’: Cerodontha pygmaea

9a larva: rear spiracula touching each other: Agromyza albipennis

9b rear spiracula well separated: Cerodontha phalaridis

10a larva bright yellow => 11

10b larva white to amber => 12

11a larva: front spiraculum with 6 papillae; papillae of rear spiraculum normal: Liriomyza flaveola

11b front spiraculum with ca. 15 papillae; papillae of rear spiraculum with contorted openings: Cerodontha phalaridis

12a larva and puparium with on each segment a transverse row of spinelike papillae, about as long as the width of the segments: Pseudonapomyza atra

12b no such spines => 13 *

13a larva: rear spiracula touch each other: Agromyza albipennis

13b rear spiracula separated by at least 3 times their diameter => 14

14a larve: mandible with 3 teeth; abdominal segment 8 dorsally spinulose over its entire length: Agromyza nigrociliata

14b mandible with 2 teeth; abdominal segment 8 dorsally spinulose only near its anterior and posterior border: Agromyza nigrella / A. mobilis

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis; Ditylenchus radicicola

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Acarolox arundinaceus; Aceria tenuis

102b Tarsonemidae: Steneotarsonemus spec.

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa longicornis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, graminis, sessilis, striiformis

108 – smut fungi

108a Tilletiaceae: Tilletia menieri

108b Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago echinata, striiformis

108c Ustilentylomataceae: Ustilentyloma brefeldii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea

110c Fungi, Dothideomycetes: Dilophospora alopecuri

110d Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma gerhardtii, graminis

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Not included in the key: Cerodontha zoerneri; Chromatomyia fuscula; Cnephasia incertana; Cosmopterix orichalcea.