Apera, silky-bent

1a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often within a leaf sheath!) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

1b mandible with 2 teeth; nog egg shell visible (Agromyzidae) => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzidae-type; pupation outside the mine: Agromyza nigrociliata **

2b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation either within or outside the mine => 3

3a pupation outside the mine => 4

3b puparium within the mine => 5

4a larva: rear spiraculum with 7-8 papillae; larva and puparium bear on each segment a transverse row of long papillae, as long as the width of the segment: Pseudonapomyza atra

4b rear spiraculum with 3 papillae; larva and puparium without such long spines: Liriomyza flaveola

5a puparium: front spiracula penetrate the epidermis: Chromatomyia nigra

5b puparium not connected to the outside world => 6

9a puparium glued with some frass inside the mine => 10

9b puparium not fixed with frass, but anchored with a few threads of secreted material: Cerodontha pygmaea

10a puparium: rear spiracula, seen from above, form a V: Cerodontha lateralis

10b rear spiracula, seen from above, form a U: Cerodontha superciliosa

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis, graminis; Ditylenchus dipsaci

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccina arrhenatheri, coronata, graminis

108 – smut fungi

108a Tilletiaceae: Tilletia separata

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

** See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.