Cotula buttonweed, water buttons

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a puparium in the leaf in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

1b pupation after the the larva has left the mine through a semicircular exit slit => 2

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera

2b larva: rear spiraculum with ca 18 papillae: Phytomyza pullula

Phytomyza permutata perhaps lives on C. turbinata; its biology is unknown. Phytomyza scotica has been observed on the Canary Islands on Cotula australis; the mine was not described.

mod 9.x.2017