Teucrium germander

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a lower-surface tentiform mine: Aspilapteryx limosella

1b fleck mine => 2

1c mine different => 7

1d galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species

2a case helicoidal => 3

2b case more or less straight => 4

3a case about as wide as high; all-European species: Apterona helicoidella

3b case wider than high; Mediterranean species: Apterona helicinella

4a case made out of a single leaf fragment (spatulate leaf case): Coleophora auricella

4b case made out of a number of leaf fragments => 5

5a lobe case: Coleophora chamaedriella

5b composite leaf case => 6

6a case rather slender, rear end bent downwards: Coleophora ballotella

6b case squat, straight: Coleophora mareki

7a mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish when lighted from behind; larva a maggot => 8

7b mine full depth, whitish when held against the light; larva with recognisable head => 10

8a blotch. prededed by a long, slender corridor (may be obliterated by the later blotch, but usually still visibile then in the frass pattern, when lighted from behind): Amauromyza labiatarum

8b corridor from start to end => 9

9a mine pinnately branched, the main branch overlying the midrib; frass in strings: Liriomyza strrigata

9b mine not pinnate, free from the midrib; frass in isolated grains: Chromatomyia horticola

10a corridor, widening into a large blotch: Glaucolepis teucriella

10b mine different => 11

11a mine small, of indefinite shape; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 12

11b mine a definite corridor, not unusually small; larva mines all its life: Apteropeda globosa & orbiculata

12a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

12b pinacula black => 13

13a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

13b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

Not included in the key: Cnephasia ecullyana

mod 2.iii.2018