Erucastrum dogmustard

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a larva a maggot; mine partly or entirely upper- or lower-surface => 2

1b larva with chitinised head; mine full depth => 3

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a frass powdery, in dark green “clouds” in corners of the mine, often visibly only after the mine has been opened: Scaptomyza flava

2b frass in black strings: Liriomyza xanthocera

3a larva with prolegs; older larvae live free at the underside of the leaf: Plutella xylostella

3b no prolegs; larvae mine all their life => 4

4a larva with thoracic legs: Phyllotreta nemorum

4b larva without legs: Ceutorhynchus minutus

mod 5.ii.2018