Rhus sumac

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a epidermal corridor, soon a very weakly contracted, blotch-like tentiform mine; the older larva in a rolled leaf: Caloptilia coruscans

1b corridor; larva remains all its life in the mine => 2

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a corridor full depth, with much frass in a thick central line; pupation outside the mine: Simplimorpha promissa

2b corridor upper- or lower-surface; frass in discrete grains in two rows along the sides; pupation within the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

mod 9.x.2017