Ostrya, hop-hornbeam

fam. Betulaceae

1a blotch, from which in the end a circular excision is made: Incurvaria pectinea

1b corridor mine => 2

1c blotch, without excision => 4

1d tentifom mine => 6

1e fleck mine => 9

1f galls, etc => 100

2a corridor over its entire length hardly wider than the larve within, often following a thick vein over a long distance => 3

2b corridor broader, independent of the venation of the leaf: Stigmella carpinella

3a frass in a very narrow central line: Stigmella microtheriella

3b frass line broader, 1/2 – 1/3 of the width of the corridor: Stigmella johanssonella

4a frass in long threads: Paracrania chrysolepidella

4b frass granular => 5

5a silvery upper-surface blotch: Phyllonorycter coryli & Ph. esperella (young mines)

5b small rectangular brownish blotch; the older larva lives free under a leaf margin that has been folded downwards: Parornix carpinella

6a lower-surface mine: Phyllonorycter tenerella

6b upper-surface mine => 7

7a pupa: upper surface of cremaster smooth: Phyllonorycter aemula

7b upper surface of cremaster roughened by spiny papillae => 8

8a pupa: abdomen 7 ventrally with at either sides a single row of relatively strong spines: Phyllonorycter esperella

8b these spines weaker, in a partly double row: Phyllonorycter coryli

9a lobe case: Coleophora violacea

9b composite leaf case; case strongly curved: Coleophora serratella (jeugdzak)

9c tubular leaf case: Coleophora serratella (volgroeide zak)

9d spathulate leaf case: Coleophora milvipennis

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Cerambycidae: Oberea linearis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniastraceae: Melampsoridium carpini

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphrina ostryae