Helianthemum, rock-rose

fam. Cistaceae

1a corridor, widening into, and often overrun by, a blotch => 2

1b blotch, not preceded by a gallery: Urodeta hibernella

1c tentiform mine: Triberta helianthemella

1d fleck mine, made by a larva that operated from the outside => 6

1e galls, etc => 100

2a at the start of the gallery a shining, semiglobular egg shell => 3

2b no egg shell visible at the start of the gallery => 6

3a gallery strongly wound, not slender: Parafomoria tingitella

3b gallery long and slender, not strongly wound => 4

4a gallery hardly widened at the end; frass occupies about one third of the width of the gallery: Parafomoria helianthemella

4b gallry abruptly and stronly widened at the end; frass line narrower: Stigmella diniensis

6a frass loose, individual grains well recognisable; larva with prolegs: Mompha miscella

6b frass compact, partly in clusters and threads, individual grains not easily discernable; larva without prolegs: Mantura matthewsi

7a mine associated with a silken tube, attached to the leaf => 8

7b mine not assosiciated with a tube of spinning => 9

8a larva greyish green with whitish length lines e grijsgroen met wittige lengtelijnen: Scythris picaepennis

8b larva dark purple with narrow whitish transverse lines: Scythris siccella

8c larva unknown, possibly not a miner: Scythris dissimilella

9a larva mines from a case, continues mining until pupation => 10

9b larve lives free => 18

10a case helicoidal => 11

10b case more or less straight => 12

11a suture line quite deep: Apterona helicoidella

11b suture line very shallow: Apterona gracilis

12a lobe case: Coleophora potentillae

12b composite leaf case => 13

12c (seemingly) a tubular leaf case => 17

13a leaf fragments the form the case very irregularly aligned, sticking out => 14

13b case with a more or less straight outline => 16

14a mouth angle 40°: Coleophora cyrniella

14b mouth angle 60-80°: Coleophora eupreta

15 not applicable

16a case slender, 10-15 mm: Coleophora ochrea

16b case squat, < 10 mm: Coleophora bilineella

17a case tubular; the openings in the mines are neatly round: Coleophora helianthemella

17b case oval; the openings in the mines are slits: Crinopteryx familiella

18a the larve mines all its life: Somabrachys aegrota

18b only the first instars are miners: 19

19a mines very small: Aricia agestis

19b mines relatively large: Adscita geryon

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria rosalia

103 – Coleoptera

103a Apionidae: Helianthemapion aciculare; Phrissotrichum rugicolle

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura helianthemi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis helianthemi

105b Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces orontii; Leveillula taurica; Podosphaera helianthemi

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora leptoclada

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum