Picea spruce

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a needles are mined from their base, from a silken tube attached to the branch => 2

1b no silken tube => 8

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva green => 3

2b larva brownish => 4

3a mine in spring: Epinotia nanana

3b mine in autumn: Epinotia tedella

4a mine without frass: Coleotechnites piceaella

4b mined needles contain frass grains => 5

5a mine in the previous year’s needles; larvae remain in the mine till shortly before pupation => 6

5b mine in the fresh needles; older larvae do not mine any more => 7

6a larva in May-June; in front of the anus a row of spines: Chionodes electella

6b larva in September-May; no such row of spines; mine in the basal part of the needle: Batrachedra pinicolella

7a larva: upper lip white: Dichelia histrionana

7b upper lip dark: Pseudohermenias abietana

8a fleck mine: Archips oporana

8b not so => 9

9a the larve mines a single leaf (then bites it off, and uses it as a case): Nemophora associatella

9b the larva mines several leaves => 10

10a mine does not contain frass; larva orange-brown: Coleotechnites piceaella

10b in the top or base of the mine frass is present; larva greenish => 11

11a larva: head and pronotum dark brown => 12

11b head and pronotum light brown => 13

12a mining larvae in spring: Epinotia pygmaeana

12b larvae in June-July: Epinotia subsequana

13a older larva bores into the twig: Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana

13b older larva between spun needles: Cymolomia hartigiana

Not included in the key: Aphelia viburnana; Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Blastobasis vittata; Exoteleia dodecella; Spilonota laricana.

mod 9.x.2017