Amaranthus, amaranth

fam. Amaranthaceae

1amine upper- or lower-surface, usually a corridor, rarely an elongated secondary blotch => 2

1bmine largely full depth, mostly more or less a blotch => 5

1c gals, etc => 100

2amine a short fine corridor that ends on a vein; from there the larva enters the stem and continues as a borer: Amauromyza chenopodivora

2bmine from start to end in the leaf lamina => 3

3amine pinnately branched; main branch positioned over the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

3bmine not or irerregulary branched, not associated with the midrib => 4

4afrass in short strings; puparium formed outside the mine: Liriomyza bryoniae

4bfrass in isolated grains; puparium in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

5aseveral large blotch mines in, usually young, leaves; the larva migrates from one leaf to the other through the stem that is excavated meanwhile: Delia echinata

5bthe larva limits itself to one leaf => 6

6alarva a colourless maggot; an egg shell present a the beginning of the mine; mine with shallow parts:Scaptomyza graminum

6blarva with distinct head and feet, and red markings; no egg shell; mine full depth throughout => 7

7amine a densely coiled corridor; frass in broad green bands: Chrysoesthia drurella

7bfully developed mine a primairy blotch; frass in large black lumps: Chrysoesthia sexguttella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Heteroderidae: >Heterodera schachtii

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporiaceae: Thecaphora amaranthi

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe celosiae; Leveillula taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora amaranthi

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Wilsoniana amaranthi, bliti

Not included in the key: Coleophora versurella; Pegomya hyoscyami.