Moehringia, three-nerved sandwort

fam. Caryophyllaceae

1a fleck mine: Coleophora chalcogrammella

1b corridor or blotch => 2

1c gall, etc => 100

2a mine begins near an under-surface egg shell (the larva can move to a new mine, making a large hole for entrance): Pegomya flavfrons

2b no egg visible at the start of the mine => 3

3a frass sparingly, in black grains: Amauromyza flavifrons

3b frass powdery, in green clouds, mainly along the sides of the mine and in the end of short side branches: Scaptomyza graminum

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria moehringiae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Brachycolus stellariae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arenariae

107b Pucciniastraceae: Melampsorella caryophyllacearum

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporiaceae: Thecaphora saponariae sensu lato

108b Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum duriaeanum, stellariae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Peronosporaceae: Peronospora arenariae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Caryocolum alsinella, moehringiae; Cnephasia incertana; Coleophora moehringiae; Delia quadripila; Oreorrhynchaeus alpicola; Pegomya holosteae.