Stellaria*, chickweed

fam. Caryophyllaceae

1a fleck mine => 2

1b corridor or blotch => 4

1c gall, etc => 100

2a case with a dorsal keel that, already before haflway up, divides into 2 parallel keels: Coleophora lithargyrinella

2b dorsal keel, if at all present, not cleft => 3

3a case c. 6 mm; sharp bend just behind the mouth, mouth angle therefore 30°: Coleophora chalcogrammella

3b case c. 8 mm; case straight, mouth angle 45°: Coleophora solitariella

4a larvae with feet and chitinised head => 5

4b larva a maggot, without feet and (seemingly) witout a head => 13

5a mine not unusually small, clearly contracted; larva mines all its life; species of the far southeastern Mediterranean: Cnephasia lineata

5b mines small, not contracted; older larvae ive between spun leaves => 6

6a larvae dark in colour; mines of indefinite shape => 7

6b larvae light in colout (keat partly based on Bland ao, 2002a) => 9

7a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

7b pinacula black => 8

8a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

8b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

9a larva: greenish white with 5 faint pink length lines: Caryocolum tricolorella

9b greenish, no pink length lines => 10

10a on Stellaria holostea => 11

10b on Stellaria graminea, media => 12

10c on Stellaria uliginosa: Caryocolum kroesmanniella

11a mining larvae in late autumn; boy pale green: Caryocolum kroesmanniella

11b mining larvae in early spring; yellow-green: Caryocolum blandella

12a laaglandsoort: Caryocolum junctella

12b gebergtesoort: Caryocolum petrophila

13a larva also bores in the upper part of the stem, causing wilting of the top op the plant: Delia echinata

13b larva exclusively in the leaf => 14

14a short gallery that seems to end upon a thick vein: Ophiomyia melandricaulis

14b not so => 15

15a mine a gallery from start to end (but may form a secondary blotch) => 16

15b mine, at least in the end, a primary blotch => 19

16a frass in isolated grains; pupation within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

16b frass in short strings, pupation external => 17

17a gallery pinnately branched; main and side branches on top of the midrib and lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

17b gallery hardly branched, its course independent of the venation of the leaf => 18

18aliving larva entirely yellow; species of subtropical regions and greenhouses: Liriomyza trifolii

18b living larvae only posteriorly yellow; species of more temperate regions: Liriomyza bryoniae

19a frass in coarse, blackish green lumps; at he start of the mine one (or more?) white elliptic egg shells are visible => 20

19b frass ot that coarsse; no egg shells visible at the start of the mine => 21

20a most of the mine is a blotch: Delia coronariae & Pegomya flavifrons

20b large parts of the mines are a gallery: Pegomya holosteae

21a mine whitish, frass sparingly, in fine black grains: Amauromyza flavifrons

21b mine greenish; frass powdery, in green clouds, mainly along the sides of the mine and in the end of short side branches: Scaptomyza graminum

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: trifolii

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: ? Aceria moehringiae; Cecidophyopsis atrichus

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Brachycolus stellariae

105b Psyllidae: Aphalara affinis

105c Triozidae: Trioza caesaris

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arenariae, Puccinia behenis, isiacae

107b Pucciniastraceae: Melampsorella caryophyllacearum

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporaceae: Thecaphora alsinearum, melandrii

108b Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum stellariae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe buhrii

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora alsinearum, parva

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Septoria stellariae

110e Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum, stellariae

* Incl. Myosoton (=Malachium) aquaticum, Water Chickweed

Not included in the key: Caryocolum alsinella (problably not on Stellaria), Caryocolum proxima, Caryocolum vicinella (probably never as leafminers); Pegomya holosteae; Scaptomyza griseola (doubtful).