Dianthus, pink, carnation

fam. Caryophyllaceae

1a the larva lives within the mine => 2

1b the larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines => 8

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva also bores in the top of the stem, causing this part of the plant to wilt => 3

2b larva exclusively in a leaf => 5

3a larva a maggot, remaining in the mine till pupation; frass in green lumps: Delia echinata

3b larva with chitinised head, lives later free; mine without frass => 4

4a larva: prothoracic plate yellowish green with black spots: Cacoecimorpha pronubana

4b prothoracic plate black: Caryocolum vicinella

5a final part of the mine a corrridor or very slender blotch: Liriomyza dianthicola

5b final part of the mine a broad blotch => 6

6a frass powdery, in green clouds, mainly along the sides of the mine or in the end of short side branches: Scaptomyza graminum

6b frass not in green clouds => 7

7a mine almost full depth, mostly in the leaf basis; frass in discrete grains: Delia brunnescens

7b mine clearly upper-surface, whitish, without preference for a part of the leaf; frass in few, small black grains: Amauromyza flavifrons

8a rim of mouth forming a distinct flange: Coleophora dianthivora

8b flange weak of absent => 9

9a case with dark length lines => 10

9b no length lines visible: Coleophora adelogrammella

10a case rough: Coleophora riffelensis

10b case practically smooth: Coleophora musculella & nubivagella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera schachtii, trifolii

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria dianthi, paradianthi

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura dianthi

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arenariae, ateridoi, behenis; Uromyces dianthi

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporiaceae: Thecaphora saponariae

108b Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum carthusianorum, dianthorum, shykoffianum, superbum, violaceum

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe buhrii; Leveillula taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora dianthicola

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

110b Fungi, Capnodiales: Mycosphaerella dianthi

110c Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110d Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: Caryocolum leucomelanella, schleichi arenariella

Not included in the key: Botanophila fugax; Liriomyza trifolii.