Saponaria, soapwort

fam. Caryophyllaceae

1c larva lives in a transportable case, makes fleck mines => 2

1a larva not only mines the leaves but also bores in the stem, causing the top of the plant to wilt: Delia echinata

1b larva exclusively in the leaves => 3

1c galls, etc. => 100

2a mouth angle ± 90°, case stands perpendicular to the leaf: Coleophora saponariella

2b mouth angle ± 30°, case stands obliquely on the leaf: Coleophora nubivagella

3a frass sparingly, mostly in fine grains; mine a blotch, preceded by a short corridor (often overrun by the growing blotch); blotch without side branches: Amauromyza flavifrons

3b frass abundant, in strings or coarse grains; mine a corridor or a blotch with side branches => 4

4a primary blotch with side branches or lobes: Liriomyza xanthocera

4b corridor (rarely a secondary blotch) => 5

5a a pinnately branched corridor, its main axis overlying the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

5b corridor little branched, not pinnate, not associated with the midrib: Liriomyza bryoniae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia steini

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arenariae; Uromyces dianthi

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporaceae: Thecaphora saponariae

108b Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum saponariae, violaceum

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe buhrii; Golovinomyces orontii; Leveillula taurica

Not included in the key: Scaptomyza graminum.