Vaccaria, cow cockle, cowherb

fam. Caryophyllaceae

1a the larve mines several leaves, migrating from one leaf to the other by boring through the stem: Delia echinata

1b the larve is limited to a single leaf, never bores in the stem => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a corridor from start to end, pinnately branched: Liriomyza strigata

2b in the end a blotch = 3

3a frass as fine black granules: Amauromyza flavifrons

3b frass powdery, in green “clouds” in corners of the mine (it is advisable to open the mine): Scaptomyza graminum

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arenariae; Uromyces gypsophilae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Leveillula taurica

109bPeronosporaceae: Peronospora dianthi

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