Silene, catchfly, campion

Incl. Atocion, Cucubalus, Lychnis (ragged robin, catchfly), Melandrium, Viscaria. Heliospermum quadrifidum sensu Hegi => Silene pusilla.

1a mine entirely full depth (no fleck mine) => 2

1b mine at least partly upper- of lower-surface => 12

1c fleck mine => 19

1d gall, etc => 100

2a larva with chitinised head => 3

2b larva a maggot => 9

3a larva without thoracic feet => 4

3b thoracic feet present => 6

4a generally numerous tiny mines in a leaf; larvae slender: Phytosciara halterata

4b a single gallery; larva squat => 5

5a fairly broad, branched gallery: Orthochaetes insignis

5b narrow unbranched gallery along the leaf margin: Oreorrhynchaeus alpicola

6a mines small, of indefinite shape => 7

6b mine not that small, a gallery followed by a blotch => 8

7a larva: pinacula colourless (but the bases of the setae themselves are black): Cnephasia incertana

7b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

8a the larva mines all its life: Chrysoesthia eppelsheimi

8b the older larva feeds from a silken tube, or between spun leaves: Caryocolum marmorea

9a blotch => 10

9b gallery: Delia brunnescens

10a frass in very fine grains: Hydrellia griseola but see also 16b, Scaptomyza graminum)

10b frass in coarse grains => 11

11a plant with its highest leaves wilting because the larva also bores in the stem): Delia echinata

11b no wilting of the top leaves (larva does not penetrte into the stem): Delia coronariae & Pegomya flavifrons

12a a short lower-surface gallery, ending upon a thick vein: Ophiomyia melandricaulis

12b the mine does not end upon a vein => 13

13a the mine starts from an egg, that is visible from the outside; much frass, in lumps or green patches => 14

13b no egg visible (it is deposited inside the leaf) => 15

14a most of the mine full-depth: Pegomya flavifrons

14b most of the mine upper- or lower-surface: Pegomya hyoscyami

15a mine strongly widened towards the end => 16

15b mine a gallery throughout => 17

16a frass as a few small black grains; larva with its rear end blunt: Amauromyza flavifrons

16b frass in very fine, green grains, as green clouds in corners of the mine (often only discernable aftet the mine has beem opened); larva slender, with its rear end acute: Scaptomyza graminum

17a gallery pinnately branched; its main and side branches on top of the midrib and lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

17b gallery not pinnate, course independent of the venation of the leaf => 18

18a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza brassicae

18b rear spiraculum with 7-12 papillae: Liriomyza bryoniae

19a case with darker length lines, caused by adhering minute grains of detritus => 20

19b case smooth, no length lines => 22

20a case distinctly narrowed to the anal end, therefore spindle shaped: Coleophora meridionella

20b case not spindle shaped => 21

21a species af all Europe: Coleophora galbulipennella

21b species of southern and central Europe: Coleophora corsicella & C. nubivagella

22a case with a sharp, simple dorsal keel: Coleophora solitariella

22b about halfway down its length the dorsal keel is bifurcating: Coleophora lithargyrinella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria colocense, silenes; Eriophyes parviflorae

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Sibinia femoralis, pellucens

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe buhrii; Leveillula cylindrospora

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora lychnitis, melandryi, silenes

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Pezizomycotina: Diplosporonema delastrei

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110c Lepidioptera, Gelechiidae: Caryocolum amaurella, cauligenella, inflativorella, saginella

Not included in the key: Caryocolum vicinella (descriptions incomplete and contradictory); Coleophora hackmani (case not known); Trachystyphlus alpinus.

29/03/2017