Impatiens, balsam

fam. Balsaminaceae

1a mine small, full depth; larva grey, with distinct head and feet; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 2

1b mine larger, upper- or lower-surface; larva a colourless maggot, mines lifelong => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

2b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

3a irregular, strongly widening gallery; frass in small lumps, pearl chains or longer strings; pupation external; very common on this host: Phytoliriomyza melampyga

3b mine a slender gallary throughout; frass in discrete grains; pupation within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber; uncommon on this hostplant: Chromatomyia horticola

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne arenaria, hapla, incognita, javanica

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Semiaphis noli-tangere

107 – rust fungi

107a Cronartiaceae: Cronartium flaccidum

107b Pucciniaceae: Puccinia argentata, komarovii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Fibroidium balsaminae; Leveillula taurica; Oidiopsis balsaminae; balsaminae, xanthii

109b Peronosporaceae: Plasmopara destructor, obducens, velutina

110 – other causers

110a Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Pristerognatha penthinana