Vaccinium, cowberry, billberry

fam. Ericaceae

1a blotch, from which eventually a round or oval excision is cut => 2

1b fleck mine => 4

1c lower surface tentiform mine: Phyllonorycter junoniella

1d corridor or blotch (no excision) => 6

1e galls, etc => 100

2a excision round; egg deposited in the leaf tissue => 3

2b excision oval; egg on the leaf => 4

3a mine in the centre of the leaf; May-June: Incurvaria masculella

3b mine near the leaf margin; July-August: Incurvaria oehlmanniella

4a case wraped in a mined, withered and crumplef leaf: Coleophora uliginosella

4b composite leaf case => 5

4c spathulate leaf case => 7

4d sheath case (exceptional): Coleophora pyrrhulipennella

4e case not described, possibly a composite leaf case; living on Vacinium uliginosum: Coleophora plumbella

5a case composed of a large number of narrow rings; rear end strongly curved down: Coleophora vitisella

5b case composed of 3-6 leaf fragments; rear end straight => 6

6a case composed 3 leaf fragments, c. 10 mm: Coleophora idaeella

6b case composed of 5-6 leaf fragments, c. 8-14 mm: Coleophora vacciniella

7a larvae still feed actively in spring: Coleophora glitzella

7b larvae are fully fed in autumn, do not feed any more after the hibernation: Coleophora murinella

8a mine begins at an egg shell; larva lives in the mine till, or just before, pupation => 9

8b no egg shell visible; older larva lives free between spun leaves => 10

9a corridor, usually forming a secondary blotch; pupation outside the mine: Stigmella myrtillella

9b a corridor, widening into a primary blotch; pupation within the mine: Ectoedemia weaveri

10a mine tiny; mining larvae around June and October: Rhopobota myrtillana

10b mine not unusually small; mining latvae in April, May => 11

11a larva whitish: Rhopobota ustomaculana

11b larva yellowish brown: Argyroploce arbutella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Phyllocoptes oxycocci, vaccinii, vitisidaeae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Eriaphis latifrons; Wahlgreniella vaccinii

105b Diaspididae: Chionaspis salicis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniastraceae: Naohidemyces vacciniorum; Pucciniastrum goeppertianum; Thekopsora minima

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Podosphaera myrtillina var. major, myrtillina var. myrtillina

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Exobasidiaceae: Exobasidium aequale, arescens, expansum, juelianum, myrtilli, oxycocci, pachysporum, rostrupii, splendidum, vaccinii, vaccinii-uliginosi

110b Fungi, Pleosporomycetidae: Leptosphaerulina myrtillina