Primula, primrose

See also the closely related genus Cortusa.

1a mine covers several leaves, as well as the stem part connecting them: Delia echinata

1b upper- or lower-surface corridor; larva a maggot => 2

1c full depth corridor or blotch; larva with chitinised head => 3

1d gallen etc => 100

2a frass in strings and thread fragments; puparium outside the mine; mine branched, main branch overlying the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

2b frass in large, widely separated grains; puparium in the mine; mine not oriented over the midrib: Chromatomyia primulae

3a mine in leaf base and midrib, from where corridors extend into blade; larvae without feet: Orthochaetes insignis

3b a corridor that winds freely through the leaf; larva with thoracic feet: Apteropeda orbiculata

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne arenaria, hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Epitrimerus farinosus, jaceae; Leipothrix liroi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Thecabius auriculae

108 – smut fungi

108a Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum primulae

108b Urocystidaceae: Urocystis primulae, primulicola

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Fibroidium primulae-obconicae

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora oerteliana

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

110b Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Ramularia primulae

110c Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Cnephasia sedana; Coleophora nubivagella, obviella, rectilineella; Liriomyza bryoniae, trifolii; Monochroa servella; Perizoma incultaria.