Bupleurum, hare’s-ear, thorow-wax

fam. Apiaceae

1a larva with thoracic feet and a recognisable head => 2

1b larva a maggot => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a short (c. 5 mm) corridor without frass: Agonopterix fruticosella

2b corridor much longer, with a clear frass line => 3

3a on Bupleurum fruticescens: Trifurcula sanctibenedicti

3b on Bupleurum fruticosum, rigidum: Trifurcula bupleurella

4a large blotch mine, sometimes with a short and broad initial corridor; primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuous; larva: rear spiracula with 3 papillae: Euleia heraclei

4b initial corridor much longer; at most primary feeding lines may be visible vaguely; rear spiracula with >3 papillae => 5

5a corridor very long and narrow, hardly widening towards the end; frass in an almost continuous central line: Phytomyza facialis

5b corrridor widening fast and strongly; frass in granules or strings along the corridor sides => 6

6a larvae in April-May; mine starts with a short lower-surface stretch: Phytomyza bupleuri

6b larvae in July and September-October; mine upper-surface throughout: Phytomyza elsae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

105 – Hemiptera

105a Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

105b Triozidae: Eryngiophaga hungarica, lautereri

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Aecidium schroeppelianum; Puccinia bupleuri, isiacae; Uromyces bupleuri

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma bupleuri

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe heraclei; Leveillula taurica