Carum, caraway

fam. Apiaceae

1a mine < 1 cm, full depth, very transparant; larvae with chitinised head; older larvae live free => 2

1b mine larger, upper- or lower-surface, greenish when lighted from behind; the larvae, maggots, mine all their life => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a usually a number of mines together; they do not contain silk, remain therefore totally flat: Epermenia chaerophyllella

2b mines single; some silk is deposited inside, causing them to bulge somehwat => 3

3a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black): Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

2a frass in isolated grains, scattered; larva with a frontal appendage, anterior spiraculum bifid: Phytomyza chaerophylli

2b frass grains close together, partly in pearl chains; larva without a frontal appendage, anterior spiraculum compact: Phytomyza mylini

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria carvi

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Calosirus terminatus

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Kiefferia pericarpiicola; Lasioptera carophila

105 – Hemiptera

105a Triozidae: Trioza apicalis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia athamantina, bistortae, ? polygoni-alpini

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe heraclei

109b Peronosporaceae: Plasmopara nivea

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Protomyces macrosporus

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110c Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphridium algeriense

Not included in the key: Depressaria daucella.