Cicuta, cowbane

fam. Apiaceae

1a corridor < 1 cm long, full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head => 2

1b mine longer, upper-surface, larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larvae laterally with a bright yellow length line: Depressaria daucella

2b larvae more or less uniformly coloured: Epermenia chaerophyllella

3a corridor mine => 4

3b blotch mine, may start with a short and wide corridor => 6

4a corridor short, initial ppart lower-surface, later upper-surface; exit slit in upper epidermis: Phytomyza cicutae

4b corridor several cm long, fully upper-surface; exit slit in lower epidermis => 5

5a corridor follows the leaf margin; frass partly in pearl chains: Phytomyza virosae

5b corridor free in the leaf; frass usually in isolated grains: Phytomyza pastinacae

6a large blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines; larva: rear spiracula with 3 papilla: Euleia heraclei

6b small blotch without apparent feeding lines; rear spiracula with >3 papillae => 7

7a mine small, upper-surface throughout, usually in the tip of a leaf segment; frass in black lumps: Phytomyza cicutivora

7b mine larger. usually with some full depth patches; frass in grains, locally pearl chains: Phytomyza mylini

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Lixus iridis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia cicutae; Uromyces lineolatus

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe heraclei

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma vagans

110b Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Buerenia cicutae; Protomyces macrosporus