Heracleum, hogweed, keck, cow parsnip

fam. Apiaceae

1a mine 2

1b mine > 1 cm, upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a usually many mines together in a vein axil; larvae whitish; later thet live free, causing extensive window feeding: Epermenia chaerophyllella

2b mines differently arranged; larvae dark grey; later they live among spun leaves => 3

3a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black => 4

4a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

4b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

5a short gallery that seems to end upon a thick vein: Phytoecia cylindrica

5b long gallery => 6

5c blotch => 8

6a gallery pinnately brached; main and side branches on top of a thick vein and its lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

6b gallery not determined by the venation of the leaf => 7

7a gallery upper-surface, whitishl frass grains close together: Phytomyza spondyllii + Ph. pastinacae

7b gallerey interparenchymatous, yellowish; frass grains few, widely spaced: Phytomyza sphondyliivora

8a blotch interparenchymatous, yellowish green at first, brownish later, perforate; appearance of a fungus infestation => 9

8b blotch upper- or lower-surface => 10

9a larva: frontal appendage present: Phytomyza heracleana

9b frontal appendage absent: Phytomyza sp.

10a at the start of the mine at the underside of the leaf a group of long-oval egg shells: Pegomya vanduzeei

10b no egg shells at the start of the mine => 11

11a in fresh mines primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous: Euleia heraclei & Cryptaciura rotundiventris

11b feeding lines inconspicuous: Phytomyza angelicae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Epitrimerus anthrisci, heraclei

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Lixus iridis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Paramyzus heraclei

105b Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

105c Triozidae: Trioza anthrisci

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Timaspis heraclei

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia corteyi, heraclei, nitidula; Uromyces graminis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe heraclei; Leveillula braunii

109b Peronosporaceae: Plasmopara nivea

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Protomyces macrosporus

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110c Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphridium umbelliferarum

See also “Agromyza heraclei