Pastinaca, parsnip

fam. Apiaceae

1a mine < 1 cm, full depth, often in numbers together in a leaf axil; larvae, with distinct feet and chitinised head, later live free and cause extensive window feeding: Epermenia chaerophyllella

1b mine > 1 cm, not full depth; larva a maggot => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a primary blotch: Euleia heraclei

2b corridor, rarely locally a secondary blotch: Phytomyza spondylii + Ph. pastinacae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria peucedani

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Lixus iridis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

105a Triozidae: Trioza anthrisci, apicalis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Uromyces lineolatus

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma pastinacae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe heraclei

109b Peronosporaceae: Plasmopara pastinacae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Protomyces macrosporus

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Cnephasia asseclana; Liriomyza trifolii.

12/10/2015