Cynara, artichoke

fam. Asteraceae

1a small blotch mine: Agonopterix propinquella

1b large blotch mine => 2

1c corridor mine => 3

1d galls, etc => 100

2a larva a maggot; larvae mine all their life: Pegomya steini

2b larva with feet and well recognisable head; older lavae live free under a spinning: Tebenna micalis

3a mine in the midrib: Ceratapion damryi

3b mine at least partly also in the lamina => 4

4a corridor pinnately branched, main axis on, partly also in, the midrib => 5

4b corridor not pinnate, freely winding through the leaf => 7

5a main branch with numerous, short, side branches; larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae => 6

5b side branches longer, less numerous; rear spiraculum with 10-16 papillae: Liriomyza strigata

6a the mine begins at an elliptic egg shell; frass powdery: Pegomya terebrans

6b no egg shell visible; frass in distinct grains: Agromyza apfelbecki

7a corridor long and broad; larva with thoracic feet and chitinised head => 8

7b corridor shorter and narrower; larva a maggot => 9

8a larva hibernates in the mine: Sphaeroderma testaceum

8b larva leaves the mine before the winter (and pupates in the soil): Sphaeoderma rubidum

9a puparium in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber; larva: rear spiraculum with 6-9 papillae: Chromatomyia cf syngenesiae

9b pupation outside the mine; rear spiraculum with about 25 papillae: Phytomyza cirsii

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Apionidae: Ceratapion onopordi

103b Curculionidae: Cleonis pigra

104 – Diptera

104a Tephritidae: Terellia fuscicornis; Urophora terebrans

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces montagnei; Leveillula lappae

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae

Not included in the key: Agonopterix subpropinquella; Coleophora argenteonivea.