Carlina, carline thistle

fam. Asteraceae

1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2

1b no fleck mine; larva does not mine from a case => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a case yellowish brown to light grey, slender: Coleophora peribenanderi

2b case blackish brown, thick-set: Coleophora paripennella

3a older larvae live free among spun leaves => 4

3b larvae mine all their life => 8

4a mine small, of indefinite shape: Cnephasia stephensiana

4b mine not unusually small, a clear corridor or blotch => 5

5a blotch mine => 6

5b corridor => 7

6a the upper side of the mined leaf curls inwards, exposing the underside: Agonopterix nanatella

6b the mined leaf remains flat: Tebenna micalis

7a larva: head and prothoracic plate black: Agonopterix propinquella

7b head and prothoracic plate light brown: Agonopterix arenella

8a larva a maggot => 9

8b larva with chitinised head => 11

9a corridor from start to end: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

9b the full grown mine is a blotch => 10

10a a bloth from the beginning; the mine begins at an under-surface egg shell: Pegomya steini

10b the mine begins as a corridor (that often is overrun by the later blotch, then recognisable only in the frass pattern); no egg shell visible at the start of the mine: Amauromyza carlinae

11a larva with thoracic legs => 12

11b larva without legs: Orthochaetes insignis

12a mine begins as a corridor, ends as a blotch with strong length folds: Perittia carlinella

12b mine a blotch from the start, remaining completely flat: Scrobipalpa acuminatella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria carlinae

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Larinus planus, pollinis; Pseudocleonus grammicus

104 – Diptera

104a Tephritidae: Acanthiophilus helianthi; Urophora terebrans

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia carlinae, divergens

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces montagnei; Leveillula taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae

110 – other causers

110a Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: Metzneria aestivella

Not included in the key: Jordanita subsolana.

22/01/2017