Carthamus, safflower, saffron thistle

Incl. Carduncellus, Kentrophyllum.

1a mine long, upper-surface; larvae remain in the mine all their life => 2

1b mine small, full depth; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

1c galls, etc => 100

2a corridor pinnately branched, main and secondary branches overlying the midrib and thick side veins; frass in strings; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza strigata

2b mine little branched, not associated with leaf venation; frass in discrete grains; pupation within the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Larinus carinirostris

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Isocolus carthami; Phanacis carthami, kiefferi

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia carthami, kentrophylli, verruca

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum, montagnei; Leveillula lappae, taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae; Plasmopara carthami

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium solstitiale

Not included in the key: Liriomyza trifolii.