Serratula, saw-wort

fam. Asteraceae

1a fleck mine => 2

1b no fleck mine => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a case bivalved => 3

2b case trivalved => 4

3a spathulate leaf case: Coleophora brevipalpella

3b composite leaf cae: Coleophora serratulella

4a case peppered with grains of sand: Coleophora odorariella

4b case without grains of sand: Coleophora paripennella

5a mines small, containing little or no frass; older larvae life free under a spinning or among spun leaves => 6

5b mines not that small, usually containing a fair amount of frass; larvae mine all their life => 10

6a the free living larvae under a spinning at the underside of a leaf => 7

6b the free living larvae among spun leaves => 9

7a the full grown larvae in a rolled leaf => 8

7b the leaf remains flat; the larva’s feeding causes brown or whitish windows: Agonopterix propinquella

8a full grown larva in a leaf rolled downwards: Agonopterix arenella

8b the leaf is rolled upwards to a pod: Agonopterix kuznetzovi

9a larva: pinacula colourless (but the bases of the setae themselves are black): Cnephasia incertana

9b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

10a corridor mine; larva without prolegs => 11

10b blotch mine; larva with prolegs => 15

11a corridor wide, sides irregularly scalloped; larva with thoracic feet and chitinised head => 12

11b corridor slender, sides rather straight; larva is a maggot => 13

12a larva from August till June, hibernating in the mine; a new leaf is occupied in spring: Sphaeroderma testaceum

12b larva from October till December; hibernation in the ground: Sphaeroderma rubidum

13a corridor interparenchymatous, yellow-green: Phytomyza spinaciae

13b corridor upper- or lower-surface, shallow, whitish => 14

14a pupation within the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf syngenesiae

14b pupation outside the mine: Phytomyza cirsii

15a roundish blotch in the tip of a leaf or leaf segment: Scrobipalpa brahmiella

15b mine not well known; probably an elongate blotch overlying the midrib: Scrobipalpa pauperella (occurrence on this host uncertain)

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: ? Aceria centaureae; Aculus rigidus

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Aulacidea serratulae; Phanacis eugeniae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces montagnei; Leveillula taurica; Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Pustula obtusata

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110d Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: Metzneria metzneriella

110d Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Eucosma albidulana

Not included in the key: Chromatomyia horticola; Scrobipalpa acuminatella.

18/04/2017