Chondrilla, skeletonweed, gum succory, hogbite, devil’s grass, nakedweed

fam. Asteraceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine tiny; larva with thoracic feet; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia stephensiana

2b mine large; larva without feet, mines all its life: Orthochaetes setiger

3a min in and/or on top of the midrib, with short branches, without frass: Ophiomyia pulicaria

3b mine winds freely through the leaf, independent of the midrib; frass obvious, in isolated grains: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria chondrillae

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Cystiphora schmidti; Jaapiella chondrillae; Mycodiplosis erysiphes

104b Tephritidae: Ensina sonchi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Uroleucon chondrillae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Timaspis chondrillae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia chondrillina

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum; Leveillula lactucarum; Neoërysiphe nevoi; Podosphaera xanthii