Cichorium, chicory

1a mine in the fleshy white (etiolated) leaves of Belgian Endive => 2

1b mine in the normal, green leaves => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva: cephalic skeleton of the Agromyzinae-type; rear spiraculum with ca. 9 papillae: Ophiomyia pinguis

2b arva: cephalic skeleton of the Phytomyzinae-type; rear spiraculum with > 20 papillae => 3

3a larva in the midrib that is swollen like being galled; species not known from the Benelux: Phytomyza penicillata

3b no swelling of the midrib; well known pest species: Napomyza cichorii

4a mine full depth, larva with chitinised head => 5

4b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a magot => 7

5a sizable gallery; larva, without feet, minees all its life: Orthochaetes setiger

5b small mines of indefinite shape; larva (with thoracic feet) later lives free among spun leaves => 6

6a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

6b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

7a mine a pinnately branched corridor, its main branch overlying the midrib: Liriomyza strigata

7b mine not pinnately branched, not associated with the midrib => 8

8a mine a gallery => 9

8b blotch mine: Liriomyza endiviae, L. puella en L. sonchi

9a gallery runs freely through the leaf; puparium in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

9b short corridors emanating from the leaf base or midrib; puparium in the midrib or stem: Phytomyza continua

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria cichorii

104 – Diptera

104a Agromyzidae: Phytomyza continua

104b Cecidomyiidae: Mycodiplosis erysiphes

104c Tephritidae: Ensina sonchi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis intybi

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Timaspis cichorii

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia cichorii, littoralis

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma cichorii

108b Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum cichorii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

Not included in the key: Liriomyza