Lapsana, nipplewort

fam. Asteraceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva mines all its life; brownish to whitish, without dark spots (pinacula); apodous => 3

2b older larvae live free between spun leaves; y grey, with pinacula; feet present => 4

3a youngest parts of the mine a clear corridor, with rather parallel sides; from February till Autumn: Orthochaetes insignis

3b youngest part not a clear corridor, sides not parallel; from September untill July: Orthochaetes setiger

4a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

4b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

5a corridor or blotch; secondary feeding lines conspicuous => 6

5b corridor; no secondary feeding lines => 8

6a young mine positioned over the midbrib; a corridor untill the end: Trypeta immaculata

6b mine not associated with the midrib; quickly becoming blotchy => 7

7a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza puella

7b rear spiraculum with c. 8 papillae: Liriomyza sonchi

8a mine independent from the midrib => 9

8b mine associated with the midrib => 11

9a first part of the corridor in a dense spiral that quickly turns brown; frass in long strings: Liriomyza eupatorii

9b no spiral at start; frass in discrete grains => 10

10a pupation in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber; corridor not unusually long: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

10b pupation after the mine has been vacated through a semicircular exit slit; mine with an unusually long lower-surface corridor: Phytomyza marginella

11a mine pinnately branched, its main branch overlying the midrib; pupation after the mine has been vacated; frass in strings in the corridor and its side branches; larva: cephalic skeleton of the Phytomyzinae-type: Liriomyza strigata

11b larva lives in the midrib, making from there short excursions into the leaf; the resulting corridors almost free of frass (which is concentrated in the base of the hollow midrib); puparium formed in the mine => 12

12a midrib galled, swollen; larva: cephalic skeleton of the Phytomyzinae-type: Phytomyza penicillata

12b midrib normal; larva: cephalic skeleton of the Agromyzinae-type => 13

13a larva: rear spiraculum with 8-9 papillae: Ophiomyia cunctata

13b larva: rear spiraculum with >10 papillae => 14

14a larva: front spiraculum spine-like, erect: Ophiomyia pulicaria

14b larva: front spiraculum broad, curved: Ophiomyia beckeri

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

104 – Diptera

104a Agromyzidae: Phytomyza penicilla

104b Cecidomyiidae: Mycodiplosis erysiphes

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Hyperomyzus lampsanae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Timaspis lampsanae

107 – rust fungi

107a Coleosporiaceae: Coleosporium sonchi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia lapsanae, opizii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum; Podosphaera senecionis

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lapsanae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Pustula obtusata

110b Fungi, Capnodiales: Ramularia lapsanae

110c Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Didymaria matricariae

110d Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Phalonidia gilvicomana