Taraxacum, dandelion

fam. Asteraceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes setiger

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2

1c galls, etc. => 100

2a broad, almost blotchy corridor with secondary feeding lines: Trypeta immaculata

2b no secondary feeding lines apparent => 3

3a blotch < 1 cm, lower-surface, usually several in a leaf; a red wart from above: Cystiphora taraxaci

3b mine different (longer, larger, not like a red wart) => 4

4a mine associated with the midrib => 5

4b mine independent of the midrib => 10

5a larva in the midrib, that is galled and swollen (a gall, rather than a mine): Phytomyza wahlgreni

5b midrib not galled => 6

6a a pinnately branched corridor, the main axis overlying the midrib; pupation outside the mine; frass in fresh mines well visible, in strings; larva: cephalic skeleton of the Phytomyzinae-type: Liriomyza strigata

6b larva lives in the midrib, making from there short excursions into the lamina; these corridors almost without frass; puparium, and most of the frass, in the very base of the hollow midrib; larva: cephalic skeleton of the Agromyzinae-type: Ophiomyia-soorten** => 7

7a full grown (3rd instar) larva: mandible with 1 tooth (beware: they alternate): Ophiomyia pinguis

7b mandible with 2 teeth => 8

8a rear spiraculum with 8-9 papillae: Ophiomyia cunctata

8b rear spiraculum with ≥10 papillae => 9

9a larve: front spiraculum erect, spine-like, wth ca. 14 papillae: Ophiomyia pulicaria

9b front spiraculum broad, bent, with ca. 7 papillae: Ophiomyia beckeri

10a more or less a blotch: Liriomyza taraxaci

10b more or less a corridor => 11

11a puparium in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber; corridor not unusually long => 12

11b pupation outside the mine; mine with an unusually long under-surface corridor => 13

12a species of cultivted situations: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

12b species of undisturbed habitats: Chromatomyia farfarella

13a sides of of the upper-surface part of the corridor very irregularly eaten out; larva with a frontal appendage; rear spiraculum with ca. 30 papillae: Phytomyza marginella

13b sides of the upper-surface part of the corridor fairly smooth; no frontal appendage; rear spiraculum with ca. 20 papillae: Phytomyza taraxaci

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aculus rigidus; Leipothrix taraxaci

104 – Diptera

104a Agromyzidae: Phytomyza wahlgreni

104b Cecidomyiidae: Cystiphora taraxaci; Mycodiplosis erysiphes

104c Tephritidae: Campiglossa producta; Ensina sonchi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Uroleucon taraxaci

105b Triozidae: Trioza dispar

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Phanacis taraxaci

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia silvatica, taraxaci, variabilis

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma taraxaci

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum; Neoërysiphe nevoi; Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia taraxaci

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Ramularia taraxaci

110b Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Protomyces pachydermus

110c Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium taraxaci

**In several European countries O. nasuta has been recorded. The larva of this species is not known; the biology, as far as known, seems similar to the other Ophiomyia‘s that are keyed out here.

Not included in the key: Liriomyza trifolii.