Hypochaeris, cat’s ear

fam. Asteraceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine small; larva grey, with thoracic feet; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 3

2b mine not remarkable small; larva, light brown, without feet, mines lifelong: Orthochaetes setiger

3a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black => 4

4a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

4b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

5a upper-surface blotch with conspicuous secondary feeding lines => 6

5b no secondary feeding lines visible => 7

6a mine not associated with the midrib: Liriomyza pusilla

6b mine centered over the midrib: Trypeta immaculata

7a mine not associated with the midrib => 8

7b mine centered over the midrib => 9

8a frass in isolated grains; pupation in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber; mine not unusually long: Chromatomyia cf. syngenesiae

8b frass in strings; pupatuion after the mine has been vacated; mine starts with an unusally long lower-surface corridor: Phytomyza marginella

9a larva in the midrib that is swollen like galled (not a true mine, in fact): Phytomyza cecidonomia

9b midrib not galled => 10

10a broad irregular blotch, usually on top of the midrib; frass powdery, dark green, in “cloud” in remote corners of the mine (open the mine!): Scaptomyza flava

10b a gallery; frass, if present, as black grains or strings => 11

11a mine pinnately branched; pupation after the mine has been vacated; frass in strings in the corridor and its side branches; larva: cephalic skeleton with two rearwards pointing arms: Liriomyza strigata

11b larva lives in the midrib, from where it makes short exccursions into the lamina; these corridors almost free of frass, which is accumulated in the base of the hollow midrib; there also the puparium; larva: cephalic skeleton with three rearwards pointing arms => 12

12a larva: front spiraculum points right up, spinelike: Ophiomyia pulicaria

12b larva: front spiraculum bent, broad: Ophiomyia beckeri & cunctata

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria hypochoerina; Epitrimerus hypochoerisi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis hypochoeridis; Uroleucon hypochoeridis

105b Triozidae: ? Craspedolepta flavipennis

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Aulacidea andrei; Phanacis hypochoeridis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia hypochaeridis, marquesii, montivaga

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma maireanum

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum; Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis

109b Peronosporaceae: Bremia lactucae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Pustula obtusata

110b Fungi, Protomycetaceae: Protomyces ? kriegerianus