Scorzonera, viper’s grass

Incl. Arachnospermum. See also Podospermum, often taken as a subgenus of Sccorzonera.

1a upper-surface blotch, Cystiphora scorzonerae

1b mine different => 2

1c galls, etc. => 100

2a full depth, small mine of ill-defined shape; the larva, with thoracic feet and chitinised head, soon leaves the mine and continues feeding among spun leaves => 3

2b mine much larger; the larva, a maggot, mines all its life => 4

3a larva: pinacula colourless (although the base of the setae is black): Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

4a mine on top of the midrib, widened to a blotch towards the leaf tip, with side branches: Liriomyza tragopogonis

4b mind indepentent of the midrib => 5

5a mine a corridor till the end; pupation within the mine in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia cf syngenesiae

5b mine widened to a blotch in the end; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza scorzonerae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Aulacidea abdominalis, scorzonerae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia jackyana, Puccinia scorzonerae

108 – smut fungi

108a Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum scorzonerae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cichoracearum, orontii; Leveillula picridis

109b Peronosporaceae: Novotelnova scorzonerae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Pustula obtusata