Campanula, bellflower, bats-in-the-belfry, harebell

Incl. Symhpyandra.

Several more stem miners occur on Campanula, that are not treated here. It cannot be excluded that other Ophiomyia‘s now and then may behave similarly.

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine very small; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 3

2b mine of normal size; older larve either in a leaf roll, or mining all its life => 4

3a pinacula colourless (but the bases of the setae are black): Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

4a elongated blotch; only in spring, on Campanula persicifolia: Orophia ferrugella

4b mine, at least its first part, a definite corridor: Orthochaetes insignis

5a narrow corridor, descending to the petiole, then to the bark of the stem: Ophiomyia eucodonus**

5b mine larger, not leaving the lea => 6

6a pupation in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chambe: Chromatomyia horticola

6b pupation outside the mine => 7

7a branching corridor, positioned over the midrib and the more heavy lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

7b no association with the leaf venation => 8

8a upper surface blotch, preceded by a short, narrow corridor; larvae usually communal: Amauromyza gyrans

8b corridor; larva solitary => 9

9a corridor shallow, whitish; frass in discrete grains: Phytomyza campanulae

9b corridor deeper, greenish; frass in the first section of the mine in pearl chains: Phytomyza rapunculi

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Miarus campanulae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Dysapahis sorbi; Uroleucon rapunculoidis

105a Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Aylax trachelii

107a Coleosporiaceae: Coleosporium campanulae

107b Pucciniaceae: Puccinia campanulae, campanulae-herminii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces orontii

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora corollae, erinicola

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

110b Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Spongospora campanulae

110c Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum, Synchytrium globosum, Synchytrium vulgatum