Lonicera, honeysuckle

fam. Caprifoliaceaae

1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2

1b corridor, blotch or tentiform mine => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a the lobes used to enlarge the case are cut from the leave’s upper epidermis: Coleophora violacea

2b the lobes are cut from the lower epidermis: Coleophora ahenella

3a elongated blotch on top of the midrib; at either side a large number of lateral corridors emerge: Chromatomyia alpigenae

3b mine different, not associated with the midrib => 4

4a blotch or tentiform mine => 5

4b corridor, in the end widening into a blotch; larva with chitinised head; pupa in a globular cocoon within the mine: Rhynchaenus xylostei

4c corridor mine => 11

5a tentiform mine => 6

5b blotch not or only a little contracted or puckered => 7

6a the (quite large) mine causes the leaf to fold lengthwise: Phyllonorycter emberizaepenella

6b mine smaller, causing the leaf to fold transversely, or into a pepper box: Phyllonorcter trifasciella

7a mine small, irregular in shape, containing only a little frass; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

7b mine larger, more regular; larva mines all its life => 8

8a larva a maggot; on L. biflora: Aulagromyza antlantidis

8b larva with thoracic feet and a chitinised head; on other Lonicera species => 9

9a mine begins at an oval egg shell => 10

9b mine begins at a round hole, through which the larva has entered the leaf: Alucita hexadactyla & Pterotopteryx dodecadactyla

10a larva leaden: Perittia obscurepunctella

10b larva reddish brown: Perittia herrichiella

10b larva whitish with red markins on the thorax: Perittia weberella

11a slender full depth corridor with a central frass line, starting at an egg shell: Stigmella lonicerarum

11b corridor and frass different; never an egg shell visible => 12

12a larva leaves the mine before pupation; corridor never star-shaped, never with a lower-surface initial part => 13

12b puparium within the mine; corridor often stellate and with a lower-surface beginning => 16

13a on L. caerulea: Chromatomyia isicae

13b on L. alpigena: Aulagromyza fallax

13b on other Lonicera species => 14

14a larva in early spring (April, rarely May) in the tender leaf; rear spiraculum with a spine, surrounded by a circle of papilla: Aulagromyza cornigera

14b larvae later in the year; rear spiraculum without a spine => 15

15a frass in discrete granules: Aulagromyza hendeliana

15b frass in a broad green band, with sscattered small black grains: Aulagromyza luteoscutellata

16a on L. alpigena: Chromatomyia nervi

16b on other Lonicera species => 17

17a mine seems to consist of a number of isolated branches, independently arising from the midrib; puparium greenish: Chromatomyia aprilina

17b mine made up of several corridors, diverging from one point (not on the midrib) => 18

18a puparium green; mines in winter and early spring: winter generation of Chromatomyia aprilina

18b puparium light or dark brown; mines in summer and autumn => 19

19a corridor segments relatively long, yellow-green; puparium dark brown; frass in pearl chain: Chromatomyia lonicerae

19b corridor segments much shorter, suggesting a stellate blotch; mine greyish; puparium light brown; frass in discrete grains: Chromatomyia periclymeni

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne ardenensis, hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aculus xylostei; Callyntrotus lonicerae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Tenthredinidae: Hoplocampoides xylostei

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia festucae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe lonicerae var. ehrenbergii, lonicerae var. lonicerae, magnusii

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Sclerotiniaceae: Cristulariella depraedans

110abLepidoptera, Alucitidae: Alucita hexadactyla; Pterotopteryx dodecadactyla

Marquardt (1985a) discusses the biology and ecology of the Diptera miners on Honeysuckle.

Not included in the key: Aulagromyza flavoscutellata (unsufficiently known).