Dipsacus, teasel

Incl. Virga.

1a mine large, a clear gallery or blotch; the larva mines till just before pupation => 2

1b mine small, of indefinite shape; the larva mines only briefly, then lives free among spun leaves => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a blotch along the leaf margin; primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuous; pupation outside the mine: Agromyza dipsaci

2b corridor, not associated with the leaf margin; no feeding lines visible; pupation inside the mine => 3

3a branched corridor, not associated with midrib or leaf base, often in the leaf tip; leaf tissue around the mine turning violet: Chromatomyia succisae

3b corridors originate from the (basal part of) the midrib; no violet discolouring: Chromatomyia ramosa

4a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

4b pinacula black: Cnephasia stephensiana

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aculops orlovacae; Leipothrix dipsacivagus

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis confusa

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe knautiae; Podosphaera dipsacacearum

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora dipsaci, violacea

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium succisae