Scabiosa, small scabious

1a large tentiform mine: Phyllonorycter scabiosella

1b fleck mine => 2

1c mine transparant, full depth; larva with chitinised head => 4

1d mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1e galls, etc. => 100

2a larva mines from a long silken tube that is attached to the plant: Scythris siccella

2b larva mines from a transportable case => 3

3a cas helicoidal; hole in the mine not precisely round: Apterona helicoidella

3b case tubular; hole in the mine neatly round: Coleophora paripennella (occurrence on this host needs confirmation)

4a at the point of oviposition a shining black drop of dried secretion; pupation in the mine: Trachys troglodytes

4b no black drop; older larva leaves the mine and continues feeding between spun leaves or from a silken tube: Rhopobota stagnana

5a mine not associated with the midrib => 6

5b corridors radiate from the midrib, or pinnately branched corridor overlays it => 10

6a frass almost absent, or a few large lumps near the end of the corridor; puparium outside the mine; often a secondary blotch: Aulagromyza similis

6b frass present as grains or strings; puparium in the mine => 7

7a corridor long, in the distal half of the leaf; mine turns the surrounding leaf violet: Chromatomyia succisae

7b corridor shorter, no preferred position, no discolouring => 8

8a frass in more or less long threads; corridor contorted => 9

8 frass in isolated grains; corridor not contorted: Chromatomyia horticola

9a frass in strings of short threads: Chromatomyia scabiosae

9b frass in a more or less continuous thread: Chromatomyia scabiosella

10a corridors in the leaf disc radiating all from the basal half of the midrib: Chromatomyia ramosa

10b corridor pinnately branched, main branch overlying the midrib => 11

11a puparium in the mine: Chromatomyia scabiosarum

11b puparium external: Liriomyza strigata

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Aphelenchoididae: Aphelenchoides fragariae

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria squalida

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia scabiosae; Jaapiella scabiosae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis confusa

105b Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

105c Triozidae: Trioza munda

108 – smut fungi

108a Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum intermedium

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe knautiae; Leveillula taurica; Podosphaera dipsacacearum

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora knautiae, violacea

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

110b Lepidoptera, Alucitidae: Alucita grammodactyla

Not included in the key: Trachys troglodytes subglaber.

10/11/2015