Valerianella, corn salad

fam. Caprifoliaceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Comasinus insignus

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a main part of the mine (corridor or elongated blotch) positioned over the midrib => 3

2b mine an (almost) unbranched corridor, not associated with the midrib => 4

3a main axis of the mine a corridor; larva: rear spiraculum with 10-13 papillae: Liriomyza strigata

3b main axis an elongated blotch; rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera

4a frass in strings: Liriomyza valerianae

4b frass in isolated grains => 5

5a puparium in the mine, in a, usually under-surface, pupal chamber; larva: rear spiraculum with 6-9 papillae: Chromatomyia horticola

5b pupation outside the mine; rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza valerianellae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

105 – Hemiptera

105a Triozidae: Trioza centranthi

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Cecconia valerianellae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia cynodontis, gladioli, isiacae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces orontii

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora valerianellae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium valerianellae