Carex, sedge

fam. Cyperaceae

1a oviposition spot covered by a shiny black drop of dried secretion => 2

1b no such drop => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a on Carex-species with uniform spikelets; mainly a stem borer: Aphanisticus elongatus

2b leafminer on Carex flacca: Aphanisticus pusillus

3a larva with chitinised head; generally much frass in greyish grains, either in a central line or occupying the entire width of the mine (Lepidoptera**) => 4

3b larva a maggot; not that much frawss, anyway in the first part of the mine; frass either in two rows along the corridor sides or in 1 or a few large, widely separated lumps => 42

4a larva: with 4 red-brown length lines: Sedina buettneri

4b no such length lines => 5

5a larva: thoracic feet anteromesally with a globular structure: Donacaula forficella

5b no such appendage => 6

6a larva: pronotum laterally with a black spot: Monochroa arundinetella

6b no such spot; Elachista-species * => 7

7a on Carex acuta => 8

7b on Carex acutiformis => 11

7c on Carex brizoides: Elachista utonella

7d on Carex curvula: Elachista gleichenella

7e on Carex digitata => 14

7f on Carex distans: Elachista contaminatella & E. utonella

7g on Carex disticha: Elachista utonella

7h on Carex divulsa: Elachista gleichenella

7i on Carex echinata => 16

7j on Carex elata => 17

7k on Carex ericetorum => 20

7l on Carex ferruginea => 22

7m on Carex flacca => 23

7n on Carex hirta: Elachista utonella

7o on Carex hudsonii: Elachista obliquella

7p on Carex humilis => 27

7q on Carex laevigata: Elachista gleichenella

7r on Carex montana => 29

7s on Carex morrowii: Elachista gleichenella

7t on Carex muricata => 16

7u on Carex nigra: Elachista eleochariella

7v on Carex ornithopoda => 31

7w on Carex otrubae: Elachista gleichenella

7x on Carex panicea: Elachista eleochariella, morandinii

7y on Carex paniculata => 34

7y2 on Carex pediformid: Elachista kebneella

7z on Carex pendula: Elachista gleichenella

7aa on Carex pilosa => 36

7bb on Carex remota: Elachista utonella

7cc on Carex riparia => 37

7dd on Carex rotundata: E. tanaella

7ee on Carex sempervirens: Elachista gleichenella, ornithopodella & zonulae

7ff on Carex spicata => 38

7gg on Carex sylvatica => 39

7hh on Carex umbrosa: Elachista gleichenella

7ii on Carex vaginata: Elachista imatrella

7jj on Carex vesicaria => 41

8a head black or dark brown => 9

8b head lighter in colour => 10

9a head “shining greyish black”; prothoracic plate greyish brown: Elachista albidella

9b head dark brown: Elachista biatomella

10a prothoracic plate grey: Elachista alpinella

10b prothoracic plate dark brown: Elachista obliquella

11a species within Europe known only from Italy: Elachista fulgens

11b species (also) elsewhere in Europe => 12

12a head black or dark brown => 13

12b head lighter in colour: Elachista alpinella

13a head “shining greyish black”; prothoracic plate greyish brown: Elachista albidella

13b head dark brown: Elachista utonella

14a larval with two orange red dorsal length lines: Elachista cinereopunctella, kebneella

14b larval more or less single coloured => 15

15a prothoracic plate black: Elachista gleichenella

15b prothoracic plate amber coloured: Elachista occidentalis

16a prothoracic plate black: Elachista gleichenella

16b prothoracic plate light brown: Elachista utonella

17a species within Europe known only from Italy: Elachista fulgens

17b species (also) elsewhere in Europe => 18

18a head black: Elachista utonella

18b head light brown => 19

19a meso- and metathorax each with a lateral spot, connected by a whitish line; prothoracic plate light brown: Elachista serricornis

19b no such marking; prothoracic plate dark brown: Elachista bisulcella

20a larval with two orange red dorsal length lines: Elachista cinereopunctella

20b not so => 21

21a meso- and metathorax each with a lateral spot, connected by a whitish line: Elachista serricornis

21b unpigmented: Elachista occidentalis

22a species of all European mountains: Elachista serricornis

22b only in the Alps: Elachista differens

23a larva unknwown: E. eleochariella

23b larval with two orange red dorsal length lines: Elachista cinereopunctella

23c not so => 24

24a head almost colourless: Elachista quadripunctella

24b head dark brown to black => 25

25a prothoracic plate black: Elachista gleichenella

25b prothoracic plate light brown => 26

26a greyish green to greyish: Elachista utonella

26b yellowish to amber: Elachista biatomella & E. pigerella

27a larval with two orange red dorsal length lines: Elachista cinereopunctella

27b monochromous yellow to bone coloured => 28

28a head black: Elachista gleichenella

28b head very weakly chitinised: Elachista hedemanni, E. juliensis & E. martinii

29a larva unknown: Elachista squamosella

29b larva single coloured: Elachista gleichenella

29c larva with two dorsal length lines => 30

30a length lines red: Elachista ornithopodella

30b length lines grey: Elachista tetragonella

31a larval with two orange red dorsal length lines => 32

31b bodsy single coloured => 33

32a head brown: Elachista ornithopodella

32b head dark brown: Elachista cinereopunctella

33a head light brown: Elachista obliquella

33b head dark brown: Elachista gleichenella

34a prothoracic plate black: Elachista gleichenella

34b prothoracic plate light brown or grey => 35

35a head black: Elachista utonella

35b head light brown: Elachista alpinella

36a with two orange red dorsal length lines: Elachista cinereopunctella

36b no length lines: Elachista gleichenella

37a species, within Europe, known only from Italy: Elachista fulgens

37b species (also) elsewhere in Italy: Elachista albidella, alpinella, kilmunella & utonella

38a head black: Elachista utonella

38b head light brown: Elachista obliquella

39a head dark brown: Elachista gleichenella

39b head light brown => 40

40a prothoracic plate dark brown: Elachista obliquella

40b prothoracic plate light brown: Elachista serricornis

41a head black: Elachista utonella

41b head light brown : Elachista serricornis

42a at the start of the mine an elliptic egg shell adheres to the leaf; puparium in the mine, usually in a separate larval chamber, without frass; larva: mandible with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola

42b egg shell invisible, within the leaf tissue; mandible with 2 or more teeth => 43

43a frass in many small grains, sometimes pearl chains or strings => 44

43b frass in 1 or a few big lumps => 46

44a puparium in the mine (occurrence on this hostplant uncertain): Cerodontha geniculata

44b puparium outside the mine => 45

45a upper surface corridor, descending from the leaf tip: Metopomyza scutellata

45b mine initially lower-surface, running from the leaf base up, turns upper-surface there and redescends, widening all the while: Metopomyza xanthaspis

45c mine in the leaf tip: Metopomyza nigrohumeralis

46a larva: at the base of the rear spiraculum a black wart => 47

46b no such wart there => 52

47a frass in one single lump; larva: one of the three papillae of the rear spiraculum extremely elongated, dagger-like: Cerodontha staryi

47b frass in a few lumps; so such dagger-like papilla => 48

48a larva: rear spiraculum with 4 or more papillae; wart small, without a “root”: Cerodontha angulata

48b rear spiraculum with 3 papillae; wart large, with a conspicuous root: => 49

49a larva: warts medially touching each other => 50

49b warts well separated => 51

50a warts are medially fused; on Carex divulsa, pseudocyperus, spicata, vulpina: Cerodontha vigneae

50b warts just touching each other; on Carex hirta: Cerodontha pseuderrans

51a warts are narrower then the depth of their root; the spinulation on the surface of the warts extremely fine: Cerodontha eucaricis

51b warts wider then the depth of their root; spinulation not that extremely fine: Cerodontha caricivora

52a species from Iceland, larva unknown: Cerodontha lindrothi

52b species from all over Europe => 53

53a larva: papillae of the rear spiraculum elongated, standing out like a hen’s toes; mine usually within the leaf sheath => 54

53b papillae also elongated, rear one more or less wound around the base of the spiraculum; mine generally ending in the leaf blade => 55

54a several lumps of frass; on Carex hirta: Cerodontha hirtae

54b frass in one big lump; on Carex sylvatica and C. pilosa: Cerodontha spinata

55a mine usually in the leaf tip, usually on Carex sylvatica: Cerodontha cariciola

55b mine usually in the central part of the blade => 56

56a on Carex arenaria, hirta, in xerothermous habitats: Cerodontha suturalis

56b on various Carex-soorten (incl. hirta), common species Cerodontha morosa

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria diversicoloris

102b Phytoptidae: Phytoptus caricis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Laingia psammae

105b Psyllidae: Livia crefeldensis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Entorrhizaceae: Entorrhiza caricicola

* The larvae of many Elachistidae are not or insufficiently described, and the construction of a normal key is impossible. However, many species seem to be rather narrowly monophagous, therefore a key has been made, starting with individual Carex species. The identifications may not be regarded as anything more than suggestions. A few species could not even be dealt with in this fashion, because only “Carex” was mentioned as the (presumed) hostplant: Elachista arnoldi, atricomella, carinisella, humilis, leifi, nobilella, scirpi and stabilella.

Not included in the key: Cerodontha mellita; Metopomyza interfrontalis.

28/03/2017