Luzula, woodrush

fam. Juncaceae

1a at the start of the mine an egg shell, covered by a black, shiny layer of dried secretion: Aphanisticus pusillus

1b egg invisible, inserted in the leaf tissue => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot; pupation within the mine => 3

2b mine full depth, transparant; larva with chitinised head; pupation within or outside the mine => 7

3a mine begins lower-surface, is upper-surface later; frass in rather copious loose granules; front spiracula of the puparium project through the epidermis; larva: rear spiraculum with 18-25 small budlike papillae: Chromatomyia luzulae

3b mine upper-surface or inter-parenchymal; frass in 1 or 2 large lumps; front spiracula of the puparium not penetrating the epidermis; rear spiracluum with 1-3 strongly enlarged papillae => 4

4a On Luzula albida: Cerodontha carpatica

4b on Luzula campestris, multiflora, pilosa => 5

4c on Luzula sylvatica => 6

5a exclusively on Luzula pilosa; larva: fore spiraculum with 18-20 papillae: Cerodontha handlirschi

5b not exclusively on Luzula pilosa; anterior spiraculum with 9-17 papillae: Cerodontha bimaculata

6a larvae in April-September; mine often ending within the leaf sheath; larva: the 3 papillae of the rear spiraculum long and spreading like a hen’s foot; puparium with the rear spiracula well separated: Cerodontha silvatica

6b larvae in August-November, perhaps even later; mine usually confined to the leaf blade; larvae: one of the three papillae of the rear spiraculum very long and extending, the other 2 are folded in a half circle around the base of the first one; puparium: rear spiracula on a common base, touching each other: Cerodontha luzulae

7a very short mine from the base of the lamina: Glyphipterix fuscoviridella

7b mine (much) longer, not associated with the base of the lamina: Elachista mines, difficult to identify => 8

8a mine long and narrow, corridor-like (young mines, autumn and winter) => 9

8b mine almost as wide as the leaf (older mines, mainly in spring) => 11

9a corridor irregularly winding; larva greyish-white: Elachista gleichenella

9b gallery with the sides very irregularly scalloped out: Elachista apicipunctella

9c corridor for most of its length parallel to the leaf venation => 11

10a corridor < 5 cm; young larva lemon (later greenish-grey): Elachista regicifella

10b corridor > 10 cm; larva yellowish-white with two reddish length lines dorsally: Elachista trapeziella

11a mine inflated, with conspicuous length folds => 12

11b mine flat, without folds => 13

12a larva colourless: Elachista quadripunctella

12b larva blackish green: Elachista regificella

12c larva greyish white: Elachista geminatella

12d larva bone coloured: Elachista albifrontella

12e larve dull green: Elachista tengstromi

13a larva pink, with four cream length lines: Elachista trapeziella

13b larva grey-green: Elachista gleichenella

13c larva yellow: Elachista nobilella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia luzulae, obscura

108 – smut fungi

108a Anthracoideaceae: Stegocintractia hyperborea, luzulae, spadicea

108b Microbotryaceae: Bauerago vuyckii

108c Urocystidaceae: Urocystis luzulae

Not included in the key: Chromatomyia beigerae.

13/01/2017