Echinochloa, cockspur

fam. Poaceae

1a mine usually starts in the leaf sheath; from there broad corridors enter the blade; at start of the mine an egg shell is visible; pupaption usually in a small separate mine; larva: mandible with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola

1b mine begins on the blade; no egg shell visible at the start; mandible with 2 teeth => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a several metallic black puparia in the mine, each anchored in the mine with with a strand of silk: Cerodontha incisa

2b puparia brown, generally formed outside the mine: Agromyza mobilis **

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia graminis

108 – smut fungi

108a Anthracoideaceae: Moesziomyces bullatus

108b Ustilaginaceae: Sporisorium destruens; Ustilago trichophora

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Peronosporaceae: Sclerospora graminicola

** See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza-larvae.

Not included in the key: Cerodontha muscina, superciliosa.