Brachypodium, false-brome

fam. Poaceae

1a larva with chitinised head; pupation outside the mine => 2

1b larva a maggot; pupation either within or outside the mine => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a a large number of Elachistidae live on Brachypodium. The mines are not very diagnostic and the majority of the larvae is insufficiently described. It is not possible to key them out. The species concerned are: Elachista adscitella, albifrontella, anserinella, apicipunctella, argentella, bifasciella, bisulcella, chrysodesmella, cingillella, fasciola, gangabella, luticomella, maculicerusella, obliquella, pollinariella, stabilella, subalbidella, subocellea, unifasciella

3a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of ther mine (often within the leaf sheath!) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

3b mandible with 2 or more teeth; no egg shell visible => 4

4a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation outside the mine * => 5

4b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within the mine => 8

5a larva: the rear spiracula separated by at least 2 x their diameter => 6

5b rear spiracula almost touching each other: Agromya albipennis

6a larva: mandibles with 2 teeth (because they alternate there may seem to be 4, when seen from the side!); ventrally, behind the mandibles, a field with backwards pointing spines => 7

6b mandibles with 4 teeth; no such field: Agromyza nigripes

7a larva: rear end of cut off at a right angle: Agromyza rondensis

7b rear end of cut off obliquely: Agromyza mobilis

8a species of mountain ranges and the high North: Chromatomyia norwegica

8b species from the European lowlands => 9

9a puparium metallic black, not connected to the outside world: Cerodontha pygmaea

9b puparium lighter in colour; the front spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 10

10a puparium orange brown: Chromatomyia nigra

10b puparium whitish: Chromatomyia milii

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria tenuis

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Mayetiola hellwigi

104b Chloropidae: Chlorops strigulus

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa brachypodii, fulvicollis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia brachypodii, coronata, graminis, striiformis

108 – smut fungi

108a Tilletiaceae: Tilletia brachypodii-ramosi, olida

108b Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago bullata, serpens, striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichloe sylvatica, typhina

110c Fungi, Phyllachoraceae: Phyllachora graminis

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza-larvae.

23/10/2016