Agrostis, bent-grass

fam. Poaceae

1a larva with chitinised head; in the narrower parts of the corridor the frass in a more or less narrow central line => 2

1b larva a maggot; in narrower corridors frass in two rows along the sides => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a a number of Elachistidae; the larvae of many species are too unsufficiently known to build a key. The following species have been recorded in literature from Agrostis: Elachista albifrontella, apicipunctella, argentella, bifasciella, canapennella, freyerella, herrichii, humilis, maculicerusella, nobilella, stabilella

3a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often in a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

3b mandible with 2 or more teeth; no egg shell visible => 4

4a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type (rare on this hostplant) * => 5

4b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type => 6

5a rear spiracula touch each other; puparium either in, or outside the mine: Agromyza albipennis

5b rear spiracula separated by at least their diameter; puparium outside the mine: Agromyza nigripes

6a pupation within the mine => 7

6b pupation outside the mine => 11

7a puparium: front spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 8

7b puparium not in contact with the outside world => 9

8a larva and puparium: rear spiraculum long, fang-shaped: Chromatomyia milii

8b rear spiraculum compact, fist-shaped: Chromatomyia nigraa

9a puparium black with a metallic shine, anchored in the mine by a thread of silk => 10

9b puparium brown, not anchored: Cerodontha beigerae

10a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

10b these warts large, with a deep “root”: Cerodontha pygmaea

11a larva bright yellow => 12

11b larva white to amber => 13

12a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola

12b rear spiraculum with ca. 6 papillae (occurence on this host not certain): Liriomyza pusio

12c rear spiraculum with 12 or more papillae: Cerodontha flavocingulata

13a larva and puparium: on each segment a transverse row of spines, about as long as the width of the segment: Pseudonapomyza atra

13b zonder zulke stekels: Cerodontha atra

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis, graminis; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Subanguina graminophila, radicicola

101b Heteroderidae: Punctodera punctata

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria cornuta, tenuis; Aculodes dubius

102a Tarsonemidae: Dendroptus krameri

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Hybolasioptera fasciata; Mayetiola agrostidis, agrostivora

104b Chloropidae: Oscinella frit, nitidissima, smirnovi, vastator

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Laingia psammae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia agrostidis, borealis, coronata, graminis, kummeri, pygmaea; Uromyces agrostidis

108 – smut fungi

108a Georgefischeriaceae: Jamesdicksonia dactylidis

108b Tilletiaceae: Tilletia sphaerococca

108c Urocystidaceae: Urocystis agrostidis, tessellata

108d Ustillaginaceae: Ustilago striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora; Sclerospora graminicola

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichloe baconii

110c Fungi, Dothideomycetes: Dilophospora alopecuri

110d Fungi, Olpidiaceae: Olpidium agrostidis

110e Fungi, Phyllochoraceae: Phyllachora graminis

110f Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma agrostidis, graminis

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.