Ammophila, marram grass

Incl. Ammocalamagrostis = Calammophila.

1a larva with chitinised head; mine inflated: Apatetris kinkerella

1b larva a maggot; mine flat, shallow => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a frass in rather widely dispersed grains; puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrating the epidermis: Chromatomyia nigra

2b frass in greenish swaths; puparium metallic black; front spiracula not penetrating => 3

3a usually several larvae in the mine; puparia anchorted in te mine wih a silken strand => 4

3b larva solitary; puparium free: Cerodontha superciliosa

4a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a ‘root’: Cerodontha incisa

4b these warts large, with deep ‘roots’: Cerodontha pygmaea

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Laingia psammae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Eurytoma longipennis; Tetramesa eximia

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia ammophilae, ammophilina, coronata, graminis, ?? striiformis

108 – smut fungi

108a Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago calamagrostidis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichlo√ę typhina

20/09/2016