Calamagrostis, small-reed

fam. Poaceae

1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow parts of the mine frass in a central line => 2

1b larva a maggot; in narrow parts frass in two lines along the sides => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

3a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (may be inside a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

3b mandible with 2 or more teeth; no egg shell visible => 4

4a mine begins in the leaf blade or the leaf sheath, descends into the inside of the sheath; there also the puparium: Cerodontha denticornis

4b mine entirely in the blade => 5

5a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type ** => 6

5b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type => 8

6a larva solitary => 7

6b larvae communal: Agromyza nigrella / A. mobilis

7a larva: rear spiracula separated by 3-4 x their diameter; rear end of cut off at a right angle: Agromyza rondensis

7b rear spiracula almost touching each other; rear end cut off obliquely: Agromyza albipennis

8a pupation outside the mine => 9

8b puparium in the mine => 12

9a larva yellow => 10

9b larva whitish => 11

10a larva: posterior spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola

10b posterior spiraculum with ≥ 12 papillae: Cerodontha flavocingulata

11a species of dry habitats; rear spiraculum dagger-shaped: Cerodontha atra

11b species of wet situations; rear spiraculum shaped like a boat hook: Cerodontha calamagrostidis

12a puparium: front spiracula penetrating the epidermis: Chromatomyia nigra

12b puparium not in connection with the outside world => 13

13a puparium anchored in the mine with a strand of silk => 14

13b puparium loose in the mine => 17

14a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

14b these warts with a distinct “root” => 15

15a warts small: Cerodontha melicae

15b warts large => 16

16a mountain species: Cerodontha pygmella

16b lowland species: Cerodontha pygmaea

17a puparium unusually slender, almost resemblng a caterpillar, in the leaf sheath: Cerodontha hennigi

17b puparium squat as usual, in the blade => 18

18a larva: rear arms of the cephalic skeleton weakly chitinised, pale; puparium: yellow- to dark brown, intersegmental constrictions shallow => 19

18b rear arms of cephalic skeleton strongly chitinised, dark brown; puparium metallic black, intersegmental constrictions rather deep: Cerodontha calamagrostidis

19a larva: segments laterally covered with fine spinulation over their entire width: Cerodontha beigerae

19b spinulation only at the front and rear margins of the segments: Cerodontha imbuta

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis, graminis; Subanguina graminophila

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria tenuis; Aculodes dubius

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Laingia psammae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa calamagrostidis, eximia, variae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, graminis, poae-nemoralis, pygmaea, striiformis

108 – smut fungi

108a Urocystidaceae: Urocystis calamagrostidis

108b Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago calamagrostidis, scrobiculata, striiformis

108c Ustilentylomataceae: Ustilentyloma brefeldii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea

110c Fungi, Dothideomycetes: Dilophospora alopecuri

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza-larvae.

09/01/2017